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Another important element in the development of Kristiansand was the harbor on the island of Flekkerøy, which was the most important on the Skagerrak beginning in the 16th century and was first fortified under King Christian III in 1555.
In 1635, King Christian IV ordered his feudal seigneur, Palle Rosenkrantz, to move from Nedenes and build a royal palace on the island.
This means that the area must have had a large population before it was reduced by the Black Death.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, there was already a busy port and a small village on the Otra at the lowest point of today's Lund neighborhood (Lahelle).
This demonstrates very early habitation of the archipelago.
Grauthelleren (Grathelleren), located on Fidjane, is believed to be a Stone Age settlement.
Hence, the young city became the main city of the Christiansand Stift.
One of the largest pre-Christian burial grounds in South Norway was formerly located to the south and west of the church.
A royal centre is thought to have existed at Oddernes before 800, and the church was built around 1040.
The first discovery in Norway of a Sarup enclosure (a Neolithic form of ritual enclosure first identified at Sarup on the Danish island of Funen) was made in 2010 at Hamresanden and dates to c. Archaeological excavations to the east of Oddernes Church have uncovered rural settlements that existed during the centuries immediately before and after the start of the common era.
Together with a corresponding discovery in Rogaland, these settlements are unique in the Norwegian context; isolated farms, rather than villages, were the norm in ancient Norway.